Metadata: Creditor/Market​

A1. Loans and other credits, Debt of (Lines 1-11)

Line 01_Cross-border loans, by BIS reporting banks

The data are derived from the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) Locational Banking Statistics, that is, quarterly data on gross international financial claims and liabilities of banks resident in 40 financial centers (see list below). The key organizational criteria are the country of residence of the reporting banks and their counterparties. All positions are recorded on a gross basis, including those vis-à-vis own affiliates. This methodology is consistent with the principles underlying the compilation of national accounts, balances of payments and external debt statistics. 

Loans are defined as those financial assets created through the lending of funds that are not represented by negotiable securities. Deposits comprise all claims reflecting evidence of deposit including non-negotiable certificates of deposit, which are not represented by negotiable securities. Thus, loans and deposits include interbank borrowings and loans and inter-office balances. Data also comprise foreign trade-related credits that are included by almost all reporting countries, with the country of residence of the drawee of the trade bill generally being the guiding principle for the geographical allocation of the claims arising from suppliers' credit. Credits and international loans received and granted and deposits received and made on a trust basis are also included. Sale and repurchase transactions (repos) involving the sale of assets (e.g., securities and gold) with a commitment to repurchase the same or similar assets, financial leases, promissory notes, nonnegotiable debt securities, endorsement liabilities arising from bills rediscounted abroad and subordinated loans (including subordinated non-negotiable debt securities) are also reported in this category. 

Banks' holdings of international notes and coin that are in circulation and commonly used to make payments are also recorded as claims in the form of loans and deposits. More details on country reporting practices can be found here

The reporting area has grown over time and now comprises all banks resident in the following 43 countries: 

Australia (from end 1997) Greece (from end-2003) Norway
Austria Guernsey (from end-2001) Panama (from end-2002)
Bahamas Hong Kong SAR Portugal (from end-1997)
Bahrain India (from end-2001) Singapore
Belgium Ireland South Africa
Bermuda ( from end-2002) Isle of Man (from end-2001) South Korea (from start-2005)
Brazil (from end 2002) Italy Spain
Canada Japan Sweden
Cayman Islands Jersey (from end-2001) Switzerland
Chile (from end-2002) Luxembourg Taiwan, China (from end-2000)
Cyprus Macao SAR (2006) Turkey (from end- 2000)
Denmark Malaysia United Kindgdom
Finland Mexico (from end-2003) United States
France Netherlands  
Germany Netherlands Antilles  
The data are reported as stocks outstanding (with non-US dollar positions converted into US dollars at end-period exchange rates). The currency detail allows the BIS to calculate valuation-adjusted changes. All changes are computed by converting the relevant stocks into their original currencies using end-of-period exchange rates and subsequently converting the changes in stocks into US dollar amounts using period average rates. Aggregates and most breakdowns of the locational banking statistics are available from end-1977.

The following territories are included in BIS data under larger country aggregates, as summarized in the table below:
Islands/Territories ISO Code Included in the BIS data under
Åland Islands AX Finland
American Samoa AS United States
Anguilla AI West Indies UK
Antarctica AQ British Overseas Territories
Antigua and Barbuda AG West Indies UK
Bouvet Island BV Norway
British Indian Ocean Territory IO British Overseas Territories
British Virgin Islands VG West Indies UK
Christmas Island CX Australia
Cocos Islands CC Australia
Cook Islands CK New Zealand
French Guiana GF France
French Southern Territories TF France
Guadeloupe GP France
Guam GU United States
Heard Island & McDonald Is. HM Australia
Martinique MQ France
Mayotte YT France
Monaco MC France
Montserrat MS West Indies UK
Niue NU New Zealand
Norfolk Islands NF Australia
Northern Mariana Islands MP United States
Pitcairn Islands PN British Overseas Territories
Puerto Rico PR United States
Reunion RE France
Saint Kitts and Nevis KN West Indies UK
Saint Pierre and Miquelon PM France
South Georgia & South Sandwich Is. GS British Overseas Territories
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands SJ Norway
Tokelau TK New Zealand
US Virgin Islands (US) VI United States
Western Sahara EH Residual Africa

More information on BIS international banking statistics can be found here.

Line 02__o/w to nonbanks [Previously known as Cross-border loans from BIS banks to nonbanks]

The data are derived from the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) Locational Banking Statistics, that is, quarterly data on gross international financial claims on and liabilities to non-banks of banks resident in 43 financial centers (see list above).

Line 03_Official bilateral loans, total
Line 04__o/w aid loans [Previously known as Official bilateral loans, aid loans]
Line 05__o/w other [Previously know as Official bilateral loans, other]

This category shows the outstanding debt on loans, other than direct export credits, extended by governments which are members of the OECD's Development Assistance Committee (DAC). In addition to straightforward loans, official bilateral loans include loans repayable in kind, and eligible loans in Associated Financing packages. 

The DAC is the principal body through which the OECD deals with issues related to co-operation with developing countries. The DAC is one of the key forums in which the major bilateral donors work together to increase the effectiveness of their common effort to support sustainable development. 

The DAC Members are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Commission of the European Communities.

Aid loans cover Official Development Assistance (ODA) loans.  ODA loans are concessional loans provided by the official sector to countries and territories on the DAC List of ODA Recipients. To qualify as ODA a transaction must:

  • be administered with the promotion of the economic development and welfare of developing countries as its main objective, and
  • e concessional in character and contains a grant element of at least 25 per cent.

Other loans cover official loans other than export credits that do not qualify as ODA, either as they are not for developmental purposes or are insufficiently concessional. Those DAC Members that provide loans, and so hold official debt, notify data on outstanding amounts on these loans to OECD annually under the Creditor Reporting System. 

Data are available on an annual basis only. 

Line  06_Multilateral loans, total

Represents the sum of Lines 7 and 8.

Line 07__o/w IMF [Previously known as Multilateral loans, IMF]

The data cover total outstanding loans and other liabilities to the IMF as at the end of the reference period. Outstanding IMF credit and loans outstanding—representing the sum of (1) the use of IMF credit within the General Resources Account, (2) outstanding loans under the Structural Adjustment Facility (SAF), the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) and the Trust Fund, and (3) arrears of interest (if applicable)—are denominated in Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) and are converted to US dollars using the end-period exchange rate. The data are sourced from IMF records. Data on total IMF credit and loans are also disseminated in the IMF's statistical publication, International Financial Statistics, and on IMF website.

Line 08__o/w other institutions [Previously known as Multilateral loans, other institutions]

The data are sourced from the African Development Bank, Asian Development Bank, and Inter-American Development, and IBRD loans and IDA credits from the World Bank.

Line 09_Insured export credit, Berne Union
  • Data refer to Berne Union members' direct insurance or lending, i.e. amount reinsured by others are not deducted and amounts reinsured by members for others are not added. Countries are defined  based on ISO 3166-1. Amounts guaranteed by an international financial institution are allocated to that institution, not the country of residence of the borrower or guarantor.
  • Data in USD million. Stock data, i.e. total outstanding amounts at the end of each quarter (31 March, 30 June, 30 September and 31 December).
  • Total data include medium/long-term (MLT) exposures and short-term (ST) exposures. For metadata on ST exposure, see line 19.
  • In credit insurance, "Commitments"  are actual insurance given to cover actual loans. Thus, a Commitment means that a loan agreement (as well as the underlying project or export transaction agreement) has been signed, the insurance for this loan is in place, and the insurance premium has been paid or invoiced. In some cases a part of a loan may not yet have been disbursed – however the non-disbursed amount typically represents only a minor share of the total amount reported as Commitment.
MLT Exposure
  • MLT refers to medium/long term export credit insurance, i.e. insurance of export credits with credit terms of more than 12 months, also including insurance of export credits with shorter credit terms if the transaction involves an insured manufacturing (pre-credit) risk with a risk period of more than 12 months.
  • Most Berne Union members include both principal amounts and contract loan interest amounts in all figures reported, while some members only include principal amounts.
  • All amounts exclude uninsured percentages (typically up to 5-10%).
  • MLT Exposure is the sum of the following data, each defined below.
- MLT Commitments
- MLT Aid-Related Commitments
- MLT Arrears
- MLT Claims
- MLT Refinanced/Rescheduled Amounts
- MLT Overdues on Refinanced/Rescheduled Amounts

MLT Commitments
Total amounts insured under all current policies for which premium has been paid or invoiced and are not yet due for payment by debtors.

MLT Aid-Related Commitments
Commitments that Berne Union members have underwritten for aid-related reasons rather than based on their normal criteria.

MLT Arrears
Total amounts insured which are overdue for payment but for which claims have not been paid or rejected.

MLT Claims
Total amounts outstanding of claims paid at any time in the past which have not been recovered or written off.

MLT Refinanced/Rescheduled Amounts
Total amounts included in Paris Club or similar general refinancing / rescheduling agreements, whether representing commitments, arrears, or claims not reported as such.

 MLT Overdues on Refinanced/Rescheduled Amounts
Total amounts (of capital and/or interest) which have not been (re)paid as stipulated in Paris Club or similar general refinancing / rescheduling agreements.
  • Some Berne Union members also provide MLT lending – the categories used to allocate the lending are the same as for MLT insurance business as set out here.

The Berne Union members can be found on the website

Line 10__o/w short term [Previously known as Insured export credit exposures short term (BU)]

ST refers to insured export credits with credit terms up to and including 12 months, except for transactions involving an insured manufacturing (pre-credit) risk with a risk period of more than 12 months, which are classified as MLT.

  • Contract loan interest amounts are not included in the reported amounts, i.e. only principal amounts are included.
  • ST Exposure is comprised of ST Commitments only, as defined below.

ST Commitments
Total amounts insured under all current policy limits for which premium has been paid or invoiced, including amounts overdue for payment (arrears) until claims have been paid or rejected, and including uninsured percentages.

Line11_SDR allocation

SDRs are international reserve assets created by the IMF and allocated to members to supplement existing official reserves. Holdings of SDRs by an IMF member are recorded as an asset, while the allocation of SDRs is recorded as the incurrence of a liability of the member receiving them. The membership of the SDR Department incurs the asset and liability position among themselves, not with the IMF. The holdings and allocations should be shown gross, rather than netted (Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)).