Metadata: Comparator

QEDS National Sources JEDH Creditor/Market Sources
Instrument JEDH code JEDH Descriptor
Loans + deposits


Cross-border loans from BIS reporting banks


Official bilateral loans, total


Multilateral loans, total

Debt Securities


International debt securities, all maturities

Trade Credits


Insured export credit exposures, short term (BU)

Table 1: Comparator (QEDS/JEDH) Table

Loans + deposits (including currency) data provided by QEDS-participating countries are compared with three creditor/market data series: 1) cross-border loans from BIS reporting banks; 2) official bilateral loans (total); and 3) multilateral loans, total.

Loans from banks resident in non-BIS reporting countries, and official bilateral loans extended by non-OECD countries are not covered in the JEDH series. Multilateral loans do not cover all development banks. Reporting institutions may also exclude some components, for example, the World Bank's JEDH data exclude International Finance Corporation (IFC) loans to the private sector. Regarding deposits (including currency) that are reported in national data series, there is no corresponding instrument match in the JEDH table but BIS reporting banks' deposit assets abroad (i.e. external deposit liabilities of the banks in the counterpart country) are included under the loans category in the BIS data. Data on official bilateral loans are annual, based on the OECD's Creditor Reporting System.

For debt securities, BIS data on international debt securities (JEDH line 16) are compared with the QEDS data on debt securities (money market instruments, and bonds and notes). BIS data cover: 1) all foreign currency issues by residents, and 2) domestic currency issues by residents in foreign markets and in the domestic market when specifically targeted at nonresidents. The international securities statistics thus exclude domestic currency issues by residents in their own national market (unless specifically targeted at noresidents), whether purchased by residents or nonresidents. Due to the lack of information from commercial data providers, note and money market instruments issued by nonresidents in the domestic economy in the currency of that economy are not included. Securities that are part of debt rescheduling packages are also included in the BIS securities statistics.

To address the coverage issue of nonresident purchases of domestic currency securities (or private placements) issued by residents targeted to their own national market, the JEDH table provides as supplementary information, annual data on nonresident holdings of debt securities (line 17), sourced from the IMF's Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey (CPIS). In principle, this series covers all nonresident debt securities held by residents of economies participating in the survey.

National data on trade credits are compared with the JEDH series on Insured export credit exposure, short term (BU) (JEDH line 10), which cover the official and officially-guaranteed nonbank trade credits (trade-related credits provided by banks are largely included in BIS data on loans).

Total amounts insured under all current policy limits for which premium has been paid or invoiced, including amounts overdue for payment (arrears) until claims have been paid or rejected, and including uninsured percentages. Currently, there is no reliable creditor source for addressing the coverage gap.

While the structure of the QEDS follow the presentation tables of the External Debt Statistics: Guide for Compilers and Users (External Debt Guide), creditor/market data disseminated by the JEDH participating agencies evolve from the agency-specific compilation practices. The JEDH series are not designed to substitute for comprehensive external debt statistics and totals are not presented. By providing comparisons of interest to the user, the comparator tables also indicate that the components available on the creditor side may differ from those on the debtor side in coverage and breakdowns. SDDS metadata and QEDS notes provide information on the country-specific compilation practices that would aid user awareness of such differences.

Metadata updated March 3, 2016